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DevelRx’ consultants have a broad background in neuroscience which includes extensive research on the catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and noradrenaline. We have, along with our industrial and academic collaborators, developed novel methods for assessing the neurochemical and behavioural profiles of drugs to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

We supported the successful development of the d-amphetamine prodrug, lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse®), the methylphenidate transdermal system (Daytrana®), and guanfacine-XR (Intuniv®) as treatments for ADHD. These projects have included neuropharmacological research and evaluation of their potential for abuse and dependence.

Key publications and talks on the neuropharmacology of ADHD drugs and the challenges faced by developers of novel ADHD drugs are given below.

Edited Books and Special Issues

Heal DJ, Smith SL, Henningfield J. Special Issue of Neuropharmacology - “CNS Stimulants”, 2014.

Book Chapters

Heal DJ, Gosden J, Smith SL. Chapter Nine - Stimulant prodrugs: A pharmacological and clinical assessment of their role in treating ADHD and binge-eating disorder. In: Pharmacological Advances in Central Nervous Stimulants. Gnegy ME (Ed). Adv Pharmacol, Elsevier, 2024; 99: 251-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2023.10.002. Read more...

Heal DJ, Gosden J, Smith SL. New Drugs to treat ADHD: Opportunities and challenges in research and development. In: New Discoveries in the Behavioral Neuroscience of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Stanford SC, Scriberras E (Eds). Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2022; 57: 79-126. doi: 10.1007/7854_2022_332. Epub 2022 Apr 30. Read more...

Scientific Articles

Pillidge K, Heal DJ, Stanford SC. The NK1R-/- mouse phenotype suggests that small body size, with a sex- and diet-dependent excess in body mass and fat, are physical biomarkers for a human endophenotype with vulnerability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Psychopharmacol, 2016; 30: 848-855. Read more...

Bolea-Alamañac B, Nutt DJ, Adamou M, Asherson P, Bazire S, Coghill D, Heal D, Müller U, Nash J, Santosh P, Sayal K, Sonuga-Barke E, Young SJ; British Association for Psychopharmacology. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: update on recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol, 2014; 28: 179-203. Read more...

Heal DJ, Smith SL, Henningfield JE. CNS stimulants. Neuropharmacol, 2014; 87: 1-3.

Pillidge K, Porter AJ, Vasili T, Heal DJ, Stanford SC. Atomoxetine reduces hyperactive/impulsive behaviours in neurokinin-1 receptor 'knockout' mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 2014; 127: 56-61. Read more...

Pillidge K, Porter AJ, Dudley JA, Tsai YC, Heal DJ, Stanford SC. The behavioural response of mice lacking NK₁ receptors to guanfacine resembles its clinical profile in treatment of ADHD. Br J Pharmacol, 2014; 171: 4785-4796. Read more...

Ash ES, Heal DJ, Clare Stanford S. Contrasting changes in extracellular dopamine and glutamate along the rostro-caudal axis of the anterior cingulate cortex of the rat following an acute d-amphetamine or dopamine challenge. Neuropharmacol, 2014; 87: 180-187. Read more...

Rowley HL, Kulkarni RS, Gosden J, Brammer RJ, Hackett D, Heal DJ. Differences in the neurochemical and behavioural profiles of lisdexamfetamine methylphenidate and modafinil revealed by simultaneous dual-probe microdialysis and locomotor activity measurements in freely-moving rats. J Psychopharmacol, 2014; 28: 254-269. Read more...

Heal DJ, Smith SL, Findling RL. ADHD: current and future therapeutics. Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2012; 9: 361-390. Read more...

Heal DJ, Cheetham SC, Smith SL. The neuropharmacology of ADHD drugs in vivo: insights on efficacy and safety. Neuropharmacol, 2009; 57: 608-618. Read more...

Heal DJ, Smith SL, Kulkarni RS, Rowley HL. New perspectives from microdialysis studies in freely-moving, spontaneously hypertensive rats on the pharmacology of drugs for the treatment of ADHD. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 2008; 90: 184-197. Read more...

Heal DJ, Pierce DM. Methylphenidate and its isomers: their role in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder using a transdermal delivery system. CNS Drugs, 2006; 20: 713-738. Read more...


Gosden J, Slater NA, Heal DJ, Deats T, Hopkins SC, Koblan KS. Profile of dasotraline in rats trained to discriminate d-amphetamine from saline compared with various drugs used to treat ADHD. College on Problems of Drug Dependence Meeting, San Diego, California, USA, 9th-14th June 2018.

Heal DJ, Kulkarni RS, Pinder L, Rowley HL, Deats T, Hopkins SC, Koblan KS. Dasotraline is a monoamine reuptake inhibitor not a releasing agent as revealed by tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitivity in microdialysis in the nucleus accumbens of freely-moving rats. College on Problems of Drug Dependence Meeting, San Diego, California, USA, 9th-14th June 2018.

Rowley HL, Kulkarni RS, Pinder L, Heal DJ, Deats T, Hopkins SC, Koblan KS. Dasotraline – Evaluation of its dopamine reuptake characteristics in comparison to stimulants and non-stimulants by microdialysis in the nucleus accumbens of freely-moving rats, 557.23. Society for Neuroscience Meeting, Washington, DC, USA, 11th-15th November 2017.

Pillidge K, Porter AJ, Tsai YC, Vasili T, Heal DJ, Stanford SC. Predictive validity of the neurokinin-1 knockout mouse model of ADHD. 557.04. Society for Neuroscience Meeting, Washington, DC, USA, 15th-19th November 2014.


Dutch Paediatric Society (NVK; Nederlandse Vereniging voor Kindergeneeskunde) Virtual Meeting, December 2020.

At the invitation of Takeda Pharmaceuticals, DevelRx continues its medical education support for psychiatrists and other healthcare providers treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Talk entitled: “How can Pharmacology Help Determine Treatment Choice in ADHD?”

Shire Psychiatry Educational Forum, 2019.

Talk entitled: “A place for amphetamines in clinical practice.”

Shire Symposium at the Eunethydis International Conference, 2018.

Making it HappenADHD Guidelines in Clinical Practice.
Talk entitled: “How can pharmacology help determine treatment choice in ADHD?”


  • Drug Abuse Evaluation
  • Binge-Eating Disorder
  • Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders
  • Obesity and Metabolic Disorders
  • Psychedelics and Cannabinoids

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